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Пять языков психодиагностики об ММД Часть 5/5

© О.В. Бермант-Полякова, редактура и составление

ММД на разных психодиагностических языках

Язык заокеанских коллег: Learning Disability

In the United States and Canada, the terms learning disability, learning disabilities, and learning disorders (LD) refer to a group of disorders that affect a broad range of academic and functional skills including the ability to speak, listen, read, write, spell, reason and organize information.

A learning disability is not indicative of low intelligence. Indeed, research indicates that some people with learning disabilities may have average or above-average intelligence. Causes of learning disabilities include a deficit in the brain that affects the processing of information.
 

Disorders of psychological development
(F80-F89)

The disorders included in this block have in common: (a) onset invariably during infancy or childhood; (b) impairment or delay in development of functions that are strongly related to biological maturation of the central nervous system; and (c) a steady course without remissions and relapses. In most cases, the functions affected include language, visuo-spatial skills, and motor coordination. Usually, the delay or impairment has been present from as early as it could be detected reliably and will diminish progressively as the child grows older, although milder deficits often remain in adult life.

         
F80  Specific developmental disorders of speech and language
  Disorders in which normal patterns of language acquisition are disturbed from the early stages of development. The conditions are not directly attributable to neurological or speech mechanism abnormalities, sensory impairments, mental retardation, or environmental factors. Specific developmental disorders of speech and language are often followed by associated problems, such as difficulties in reading and spelling, abnormalities in interpersonal relationships, and emotional and behavioural disorders.
F80.0  Specific speech articulation disorder
  A specific developmental disorder in which the child's use of speech sounds is below the appropriate level for its mental age, but in which there is a normal level of language skills.
  Developmental:
· phonological disorder
· speech articulation disorder
Dyslalia
Functional speech articulation disorder
Lalling
 
  Excludes: speech articulation impairment (due to):
· aphasia NOS
( R47.0 )
· apraxia
( R48.2 )
· hearing loss
( H90-H91 )
· mental retardation
( F70-F79 )
· with language developmental disorder:
  · expressive
( F80.1 )
  · receptive
( F80.2 )
 
F80.1  Expressive language disorder
  A specific developmental disorder in which the child's ability to use expressive spoken language is markedly below the appropriate level for its mental age, but in which language comprehension is within normal limits. There may or may not be abnormalities in articulation.
  Developmental dysphasia or aphasia, expressive type
 
  Excludes: acquired aphasia with epilepsy [Landau-Kleffner] ( F80.3 )
developmental dysphasia or aphasia, receptive type
( F80.2 )
dysphasia and aphasia NOS
( R47.0 )
elective mutism
( F94.0 )
mental retardation
( F70-F79 )
pervasive developmental disorders
( F84.- )
 
F80.2  Receptive language disorder
  A specific developmental disorder in which the child's understanding of language is below the appropriate level for its mental age. In virtually all cases expressive language will also be markedly affected and abnormalities in word-sound production are common.
  Congenital auditory imperception
Developmental:
· dysphasia or aphasia, receptive type
· Wernicke's aphasia
Word deafness
 
  Excludes: acquired aphasia with epilepsy [Landau-Kleffner] ( F80.3 )
autism
( F84.0-F84.1 )
dysphasia and aphasia:
· NOS
( R47.0 )
· expressive type
( F80.1 )
elective mutism
( F94.0 )
language delay due to deafness
( H90-H91 )
mental retardation
( F70-F79 )
 
F80.3  Acquired aphasia with epilepsy [Landau-Kleffner]
  A disorder in which the child, having previously made normal progress in language development, loses both receptive and expressive language skills but retains general intelligence; the onset of the disorder is accompanied by paroxysmal abnormalities on the EEG, and in the majority of cases also by epileptic seizures. Usually the onset is between the ages of three and seven years, with skills being lost over days or weeks. The temporal association between the onset of seizures and loss of language is variable, with one preceding the other (either way round) by a few months to two years. An inflammatory encephalitic process has been suggested as a possible cause of this disorder. About two-thirds of patients are left with a more or less severe receptive language deficit.
  Excludes: aphasia (due to):
· NOS
( R47.0 )
· autism
( F84.0-F84.1 )
· disintegrative disorders of childhood
( F84.2-F84.3 )
 
F80.8  Other developmental disorders of speech and language
  Lisping
 
F80.9  Developmental disorder of speech and language, unspecified
  Language disorder NOS

F81  Specific developmental disorders of scholastic skills
  Disorders in which the normal patterns of skill acquisition are disturbed from the early stages of development. This is not simply a consequence of a lack of opportunity to learn, it is not solely a result of mental retardation, and it is not due to any form of acquired brain trauma or disease.
F81.0  Specific reading disorder
  The main feature is a specific and significant impairment in the development of reading skills that is not solely accounted for by mental age, visual acuity problems, or inadequate schooling. Reading comprehension skill, reading word recognition, oral reading skill, and performance of tasks requiring reading may all be affected. Spelling difficulties are frequently associated with specific reading disorder and often remain into adolescence even after some progress in reading has been made. Specific developmental disorders of reading are commonly preceded by a history of disorders in speech or language development. Associated emotional and behavioural disturbances are common during the school age period.
  "Backward reading"
Developmental dyslexia
Specific reading retardation
 
  Excludes: alexia NOS ( R48.0 )
dyslexia NOS
( R48.0 )
reading difficulties secondary to emotional disorders
( F93.- )
 
F81.1  Specific spelling disorder
  The main feature is a specific and significant impairment in the development of spelling skills in the absence of a history of specific reading disorder, which is not solely accounted for by low mental age, visual acuity problems, or inadequate schooling. The ability to spell orally and to write out words correctly are both affected.
  Specific spelling retardation (without reading disorder)
 
  Excludes: agraphia NOS ( R48.8 )
spelling difficulties:
· associated with a reading disorder
( F81.0 )
· due to inadequate teaching
( Z55.8 )
 
F81.2  Specific disorder of arithmetical skills
  Involves a specific impairment in arithmetical skills that is not solely explicable on the basis of general mental retardation or of inadequate schooling. The deficit concerns mastery of basic computational skills of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division rather than of the more abstract mathematical skills involved in algebra, trigonometry, geometry, or calculus.
  Developmental:
· acalculia
· arithmetical disorder
· Gerstmann's syndrome
 
  Excludes: acalculia NOS ( R48.8 )
arithmetical difficulties:
· associated with a reading or spelling disorder
( F81.3 )
· due to inadequate teaching
( Z55.8 )
 
F81.3  Mixed disorder of scholastic skills
  An ill-defined residual category of disorders in which both arithmetical and reading or spelling skills are significantly impaired, but in which the disorder is not solely explicable in terms of general mental retardation or of inadequate schooling. It should be used for disorders meeting the criteria for both F81.2 and either F81.0 or F81.1.
  Excludes: specific:
· disorder of arithmetical skills
( F81.2 )
· reading disorder
( F81.0 )
· spelling disorder
( F81.1 )
 
F81.8  Other developmental disorders of scholastic skills
  Developmental expressive writing disorder
 
F81.9  Developmental disorder of scholastic skills, unspecified
  Knowledge acquisition disability NOS
Learning:
· disability NOS
· disorder NOS
 

 

         
F82  Specific developmental disorder of motor function
  A disorder in which the main feature is a serious impairment in the development of motor coordination that is not solely explicable in terms of general intellectual retardation or of any specific congenital or acquired neurological disorder. Nevertheless, in most cases a careful clinical examination shows marked neurodevelopmental immaturities such as choreiform movements of unsupported limbs or mirror movements and other associated motor features, as well as signs of impaired fine and gross motor coordination.
  Clumsy child syndrome
Developmental:
· coordination disorder
· dyspraxia
 
  Excludes: abnormalities of gait and mobility ( R26.- )
lack of coordination
( R27.- )
· secondary to mental retardation
( F70-F79 )
 

 

         
F83  Mixed specific developmental disorders
  A residual category for disorders in which there is some admixture of specific developmental disorders of speech and language, of scholastic skills, and of motor function, but in which none predominates sufficiently to constitute the prime diagnosis. This mixed category should be used only when there is a major overlap between each of these specific developmental disorders. The disorders are usually, but not always, associated with some degree of general impairment of cognitive functions. Thus, the category should be used when there are dysfunctions meeting the criteria for two or more of F80.-, F81.- and F82.

 Перевод на русский язык:
Международная классификация болезней 10-го пересмотра,

КЛАСС V
ПСИХИЧЕСКИЕ РАССТРОЙСТВА И РАССТРОЙСТВА ПОВЕДЕНИЯ

(F00-F99)

РАССТРОЙСТВА ПСИХОЛОГИЧЕСКОГО РАЗВИТИЯ
(F80-F89)

F80 Специфические расстройства развития речи и языка
    F80.0 Специфическое расстройство речевой артикуляции
          Исключено:
          недостаточность речевой артикуляции:
          - апраксия (R48.2)
          - афазия БДУ (R47.0)
          - вследствие:
            - потери слуха (H90-H91)
            - умственной отсталости (F70-F79)
          - в сочетании со связанным с развитием расстройством  языка:
            - рецептивного типа (F80.2)
            - экспрессивного типа (F80.1)
    F80.1 Расстройство экспрессивной речи
          Исключено:
          дисфазия и афазия БДУ (R47.0)
          первазивные нарушения, связанные с развитием (F84.-)
          приобретенная афазия   с   эпилепсией   [Ландау-Клеффнера]
           (F80.3)
          связанная с развитием дисфазия или афазия рецептивного типа (F80.2)
          умственная отсталость (F70-F79)
          элективный мутизм (F94.0)
    F80.2 Расстройство рецептивной речи
          Исключено:
          аутизм (F84.0-F84.1)
          дисфазия и афазия:
          - БДУ (R47.0)
          - экспрессивного типа (F80.1)
          приобретенная афазия  при   эпилепсии Ландау-Клеффнера](F80.3)
          умственная отсталость (F70-F79)
          элективный мутизм (F94.0)
          языковая задержка вследствие глухоты (H90-H91)
    F80.3 Приобретенная афазия с эпилепсией [Ландау-Клеффнера]
          Исключено: афазия:
          - БДУ (R47.0)
          - вследствие дезинтегративных расстройств детского возраста (F84.2-F84.3)
          - при аутизме (F84.0-F84.1)
    F80.8 Другие расстройства развития речи и языка
    F80.9 Расстройства развития речи и языка неуточненные
F81 Специфические расстройства развития учебных навыков
    F81.0 Специфическое расстройство чтения
          Исключено:
          алексия БДУ (R48.0)
          дислексия БДУ (R48.0)
          трудности чтения вторичного характера у лиц с  эмоциональными расстройствами (F93.-)
    F81.1 Специфическое расстройство спеллингования
          Исключено:
          аграфия БДУ (R48.8)
          трудности спеллингования:
          - вследствие неадекватного обучения (Z55.8)
          - связанные с расстройством чтения (F81.0)
    F81.2 Специфическое расстройство арифметических навыков
          Исключено:
          акалькулия БДУ (R48.8)
          трудности счета:
          - вследствие неадекватного обучения в школе (Z55.8)
          - связанные  с  расстройством  чтения  или  спеллингования (F81.3)
    F81.3 Смешанное расстройство учебных навыков
          Исключено: специфическое:
          - расстройство арифметических навыков (F81.2)
          - расстройство спеллингования (F81.1)
          - расстройство чтения (F81.0)
    F81.8 Другие расстройства развития учебных навыков
    F81.9 Расстройство развития учебных навыков неуточненное
F82 Специфические расстройства развития моторной функции
    Исключено:
    нарушение координации (R27.-)
    - вторичное по отношению к умственной отсталости (F70-F79)
    нарушения походки и подвижности (R26.-)
F83 Смешанные специфические расстройства психологического развития
Взято со страницы http://www.neuro.net.ru/bibliot/b001/mkb10_n.html